The main objective of the paper is to trace the composition of the CAP support for Italian farms at the eve of the implementation of the CAP reform. The paper is based on three regional case studies, that represent as many farming specialisation typologies: Veneto, in the North-East, where agriculture is largely integrated in the economic system; Valle d'Aosta, in the North-West, a typical Alpine region; Puglia, in the South, where agriculture is based on Mediterranean products. The three regional cases are compared with the national average as a benchmark with regards to production specialisation, territorial disadvantages, entrepreneurial choices. It is evident that at the national level the composition of support is highly in favour of the support coming from the first pillar of the CAP. However, if the analysis is shifted to a regional level, the composition of support changes and, in some cases, it turns in favour of the second pillar support.