Vegetables have high farm gate values and their consumption can alleviate malnutrition. A study was conducted to analyze vegetable value chains in selected locations of Cameroon. Data were collected from key vegetable value chain actors and stakeholders using structured questionnaires customized for 162 producers, 65 traders, 12 exporters, 30 processors and 29 transporters in the humid tropics of Cameroon. The analysis included value chain mapping, detailed description and quantification of value chains, and economic evaluation of value chains. Most vegetable crop value chains are relatively simple, and involve only five main groups: producers, transporters, traders, processors and exporters (for traditional leafy vegetable value chains); input suppliers are a sixth category for standard vegetable chains. Vegetables are produced under different production systems adapted to the agroecological and climatic conditions of various regions. Most vegetable farmers generally have poor access to input and output market support services, including agricultural credit; this lowers their capacity to invest in their farms. What limited credit is available is typically obtained through the informal credit system, which tends to be more easily accessible by men than women. This may explain the fact that men who are engaged in vegetable farming earn much higher incomes than women. Our economic analysis of the value chain shows a benefit-cost ratio > 1 for vegetable production, processing and marketing. This indicates the vegetable sector is generally profitable for all actors along the chain, although there are wide disparities in earnings as different actors are subject to site-specific market conditions, constraints, and circumstances.