The paper evaluates the impact of adoption of push-pull technology (PPT) on household welfare in terms of productivity, incomes and poverty status measured through per capita food consumption in eastern Uganda. Cross sectional survey data was collected from 560 households in four districts in the region: Busia, Tororo, Bugiri and Pallisa, in November and December 2014. Tobit model was used to determine the intensity of adoption of the technology whereas generalized propensity scores (GPS) was applied to estimate the dose-response function (DRF) relating intensity of adoption and household welfare. Results revealed that with increased intensity of PPT adoption, probability of being poor declines through increased yield, incomes, and per capita food consumption. With an increase in the area allocated to PPT from 0.025 to 1 acre, average maize yield increases from 27 kgs to 1,400 kgs, average household income increases from 135 USD (UGX 370,000) to 273 USD (UGX 750,000) and per capita food consumption increases from 15 USD (UGX 40,000) to 27 USD (UGX 75,000). The average probability of being poor declines from 48% to 28%: This implies that increased investment on PPT dissemination and expansion is essential for poverty reduction among smallholder farmers.