Establishing rural land collective property right system with clear ownership, complete powers and functions, smooth transfer, and strict protection is the basic guarantee to the equal exchange of land elements. In this study, the reform of relevant legal systems to China’s rural land transfer was introduced firstly, and then the guiding ideology of China’s rural land transfer was proposed. Finally, the ways of practicing rural land transfer in China were discussed. Based on the premise of insisting on and improving the strictest land preservation system, farmers should have the right to occupy, use, and transfer their contracted land, and they can transfer their land contracting and management right in ways of exchange, subcontracting, renting, stock cooperation, and trust. Exploring the ways of equal exchange of land elements according to local conditions is an important political and economic issue concerning the livelihood and development of farmers in China, so it should be conducted under the guidance of the correct ideas to integrate scattered land in China’s rural areas, develop moderate-scale management, shorten the income gap between urban and rural areas, and realize balancing development of urban and rural areas in China.