The paper presents findings of the research on competitiveness of agricultural holdings covered by FADN in Germany in 2004/2005 and 2012/2013. Their competitiveness was assessed with the use of the CI (Competitiveness Index), determined by the rate of income from an agricultural holding to opportunity costs of own factors of production, and the management income category which represents the difference between the income from an agricultural holding and opportunity costs of own factors of production. The competitiveness assessment takes account of the major types of agricultural holdings, their legal forms and regions. The research showed that 40-50% of the German farms covered by the research was able to develop, i.e. was competitive. The best were the results of farms targeted at crop production, followed by dairy farms, and the worst – pig and mixed holdings.