Uganda’s government has prioritized enhancing agricultural production and productivity as a primary intervention in developing the economy. The advantages of enhancing agricultural production and productivity include improving food security at the household level, increasing income for farmers, reducing food prices for both farmers and non-farmers, and the potential of this reduction for spurring economic growth. Increased productivity is also viewed as a panacea to the challenge of increased pressure on the land, demand for more food and need for employment creation resulting from the high population growth rate. Investment in water for agriculture production (WfAP) infrastructure has been recommended as the best-bet intervention that will break the constraints facing Uganda’s agriculture. The provision and adoption of WfAP will have multiple effects on the agriculture sector by reducing risk associated with agricultural production and thereby enhancing the adoption of higher yielding technologies.