Poverty and food insecurity still plague the world today despite an effort by world leaders to address these two major problems through initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals. Majority of the world‘s population who suffer from poverty and food insecurity live in rural areas and rely on agriculture and agricultural related activities for their livelihood. Increasing productivity has been cited as a way of increasing farmers‘ incomes and reducing their food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders have thus advocated for the use of subsidies through such programs as Kilimo Plus in an attempt to provide the farmers with the essential inputs that are necessary to increase production. The program aims to increase smallholders‘ productivity by providing fertilizer and certified seeds. This study sought to determine the perception of farmers towards this program, the factors that influence the farmers‘ perception towards the program and the program‘s impact on food security and incomes of the smallholder farmers‘ households. A sample of 400 smallholder households, comprising of both the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the Kilimo Plus program were selected. Data was collected with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire. The first objective was analysed using descriptive statistics, the second objective using an ordered probit model and the third and fourth objectives using propensity score matching technique. The descriptive analysis showed that the farmers‘ perception of the Kilimo Plus program was good. The ordered probit regression results showed that the factors that significantly influenced the farmers perception were the gender of the household head, farm size, being in the Kilimo Plus program, being the household head, having an incomplete primary school education and learning of the Kilimo Plus program through a friend or neighbour, farmer group or radio, production increase and training on farming and inputs use. The propensity score matching model analysis showed that the program had a positive impact on food security and income. The government should however aim at improving the program by giving the right kind of inputs to the farmers and at the right time. Furthermore, the program should be extended in order to have a long-term impact on the smallholder farmers‘ food security and income.


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