Several studies have shown that labor outmigration is one of the livelihood strategies of poor farming households. However, no studies have shown its effect on rice crop production including a gender dimension on technical efficiency in rice farming. This paper attempts to improve the understanding of the relationship between male and female labor migration and farm technical efficiency in selected rice-based farming villages in the Philippines. Using cross-section data from 670 farm households in the Luzon area in the Philippines, results indicate that the type of migration, experience of the migrant, and frequency of home visits enhance farm technical efficiency; however, sex of the migrant increases inefficiencies. The average technical efficiency is 0.74. This implies that, in the short run, there is scope for increasing rice productivity by about 26 percent by conducting formal and informal trainings among the adult household members and providing them access to technical knowledge on the use of improved rice varieties and associated crop and resource management practices.