In the early 1970s, the midpoint of this academic society's history, the "excessive employment" in Japanese agriculture was one of the most important research subjects. Recent studies of Southeast Asian agriculture, which followed the empirical methods of investigation of the Japanese case, revealed the existence of contrasting mechanisms of wage determination. In Java, wage is determined as the average labor productivity by the work-sharing principle. Contrastively in Central Thailand, wage is determined as the marginal productivity by bilateral contracts in the market principle. In the light of the contemporary trend toward economic globalization, our next task of investigation should be why and how these contrasting systems and diversity of agrarian structure come about and coexist in the world.