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This paper presents the results from a survey of New York dairy farms that links manure management practices and farmer willingness to participate in voluntary environmental programs, focusing on those operations that are not automatically designated as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. A wide divergence is found between actual and recommended manure management practices on individual dairy farms, the apparent ability of farms to divert financial resources to environmental practices, and the willingness to participate in voluntary programs at various annual costs per cow. These findings have policy implications for the USDA-USEPA [30] National Strategy for Animal Feeding Operations. The findings also may help foster comparisons and enhance understanding of environmental management issues in Japan and the United States.


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