The question in the title is divided into: (1) Can we trade the current generation of products from biotech or the technology itself? and (2) Can we trade the future generations of products of the technology? Controversy over the first generation of products has resulted in international trade being segmented into two markets: GMO-free and GMO. The first market is supported by voluntary labelling, making mandatory labelling largely unnecessary. While trade flows have been rearranged, markets have been little affected. We conclude that trade in the future generation will be dominated by capital and technology flows, with production for local markets dominating product trade flows.