The current document examines how livestock features in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) prepared by Heavily Indebted Poor Countries as they seek concessional lending from the World Bank and IMF. An assessment has been made of the overall importance of livestock to the country's economy and to its population, especially the poor, and how accurately the PRSP reflects this. A ranking is given based on the quality of data presented in the PRSP and the degree to which considered and detailed strategies are put forward for reducing poverty through livestock-related measures. Detailed case studies are presented for five countries: Niger, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Laos and Pakistan. These explore the role of livestock within the country and in the context of the PRSP, and recommendations are proposed for guiding livestock policies towards achieving greater poverty reduction. Although the nature and demands upon livestock differ greatly between countries embarking on the PRSP process, all fail to make a strong, coherent case for support to this sector. The underlying reason for this is that the PRSP process is guided by national ministries that fail to recognize or understand the opportunities that livestock present for reducing poverty. This Working Paper concludes with recommendations for improving the PRSP process so that the interests and priorities of the poor are better represented.