This report has four parts. The first part focuses on the changing environment in which the international wheat research system functions in developing countries. The authors describe recent trends in developing country wheat production against projected demand for wheat. Next, they present strategies for increasing productivity in favored and less favored wheat production environments. Part 1 concludes with a discussion of how emerging trends and policies, such as intellectual property protection and market liberalization, are likely to affect the global wheat research system and exchange of germplasm. Part 2 of the report presents new information on the historical impact of the international wheat improvement system, including information on the role of CIMMYT germplasm. Part 3 discusses wheat supply and demand projections, with a special focus on Asia (including Central Asia). Part 4 presents statistics on world wheat production and consumption in a newly revised format.