There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are explored with emphasis on agronomic issues, segregation and handling costs, yield factors, and price premiums. At present, the development of HW wheat in North Dakota must focus on yield improvements and the development of a robust HW wheat adaptable to climatic conditions in the state to reduce the risks of switching to HW wheat as an alternative crop.