The utilisation of improved seeds is reliant on distribution system and farmers’ preferences in using the seed. Primary data were collected from key informant interviews in seed delivery chains and a farmer survey to analyse the northern Ghanaian seed delivery systems and factors influencing the adoption of improved seed by farmers. The seed system in Ghana is made up of three main components; a formal seed system, an informal farmers’ seed system and a quasi-formal seed system. The seed chain starts with breeder seed production by Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (except for imported seed) and ends with the grain farmer as the final consumer. The communication flows between members, strength of relationships and farm characteristics reveled to be affecting the improved seed uptake by smallholders in Northern Ghana. The study highlights the value of strengthening the seed delivery system and improving the availability and accessibility of improved seed varieties.