Entwicklung des Gemüsebaus in Deutschland von 2000 bis 2015: Anbauregionen, Betriebsstrukturen, Gemüsearten und Handel

Zusammenfassung Der Gemüsebau ist in Deutschland die gartenbauliche Produktionssparte sowohl mit der größten Anbaufläche als auch mit der höchsten Bruttowertschöpfung. Im Jahr 2015 wurden über 114.800 ha Gemüse im Freiland angebaut. Der jährliche Pro-Kopf-Verbrauch von Gemüse ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten von etwa 64 kg in den 1980er-Jahren auf rund 96 kg in 2013 deutlich angestiegen. Davon werden etwa 35 bis 38 % in Deutschland erzeugt. Trotz der hohen Bedeutung des Sektors liegen Daten zum Gemüseanbau bisher nur auf entweder stark aggregierter Analyseebene oder aber auf spezielle Regionen oder Gemüsearten begrenzt vor. Mit diesem Working Paper wird nun ein umfassender Überblick über den Gemüseanbau in Deutschland gegeben. Durch eine systematische Auswertung vorhandener Statistiken sowie eine koordinierte Länderanfrage war es möglich, detaillierte Einblicke in die strukturellen Entwicklungen zwischen 2000 und 2015 zu geben. Neben Analysen auf Bundes- und Länderebene werden außerdem auch die Verhältnisse auf Ebene der Landkreise oder Kulturen aufgezeigt. Der deutsche Gemüsebau ist durch seine große Vielfalt hinsichtlich der angebauten Gemüsearten gekennzeichnet. Auch bestehen große Unterschiede zwischen den Anbauregionen in Bezug auf Gemüsearten, Betriebsstrukturen und Vermarktungsinfrastruktur. In diesem Bericht werden die verschiedenen Regionen beschrieben und, soweit möglich, die jeweiligen Besonderheiten in Zusammenhang mit Klima- und Bodenbedingungen sowie anderen Bestimmungsfaktoren gebracht, um somit aktuelle Entwicklungen zu erklären.Ein Großteil der Anbaufläche, die je nach Gemüseart auch für mehrere Kulturen im Jahr genutzt werden kann, entfällt auf die Bundesländer Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz und Niedersachsen. Auch in Bayern, Baden-Württemberg, Hessen und Schleswig-Holstein finden sich vereinzelte Regionen, die eine wichtige Rolle im Gemüsebau einnehmen. Der Strukturwandel im Gemüsebau, der bereits seit Jahrzehnten hin zu immer weniger, aber größeren Betriebseinheiten erfolgt, ist auch in den letzten Jahren weiter fortgeschritten. Die Anzahl der Betriebe, die bundesweit Gemüse im Freiland anbauen, sank seit 2000 deutlich und betrug in 2015 knapp 6.100. Bei einem gleichzeitigen Anstieg der Gemüseanbaufläche wuchs die durchschnittliche Gemüseanbaufläche pro Betrieb von 7,3 ha in 2000 auf 18,9 ha in 2015. Jedoch bestehen hier je nach Region und Gemüseart erhebliche Unterschiede. Nicht nur die Betriebe wandeln sich in ihrer Struktur, Größe und Spezialisierungsgrad; auch das in Deutschland angebaute Gemüseartenspektrum hat sich im Laufe der Zeit in Reaktion auf z. B. veränderte Verbraucherpräferenzen oder Wettbewerbspositionen verändert. Somit nahm in den letzten Jahren die Spargelanbaufläche weiter zu. Damit war der Spargel flächenmäßig mit 25.700 ha Anbaufläche im Jahr 2015 die wichtigste Gemüseart. Speisezwiebeln und Möhren werden auf 10.300 ha bzw. 9.600 ha für den Frischmarkt und als Verarbeitungsgemüse angebaut. Der Kohlanbau ist insgesamt rückläufig und wird nach wie vor von Weißkohl (5.600 ha), Blumenkohl (3.560 ha) und Rotkohl (1.880 ha) dominiert. Der Salatanbau wurde in den letzten zehn Jahren um 17 % ausgedehnt und in seinem Artenspektrum deutlich verändert.Der Anbauumfang von ii Zusammenfassung Rucola (+116 %) und Speisekürbis (+136 %) nahm in den letzten Jahren am stärksten zu und hat regelrecht einen Boom erlebt. In 2015 betrug die ökologische Gemüseanbaufläche 10.700 ha, was einem Anteil von 9,3 % an der Gesamtgemüsefläche entsprach. Die Gruppe der Wurzel- und Knollengemüse (z. B. Möhren und Zwiebeln) nimmt mit 3.300 ha auch hier die größte Fläche ein. An Position zwei folgen die Blatt- und Stängelgemüse mit insgesamt fast 2.700 ha. Die unterschiedlichen Kohlgemüse werden auf knapp 1.500 ha angebaut. Wie die Gemüseanbaufläche ist auch der ökologische Gemüseanbau nicht gleichmäßig in Deutschland verteilt. Der Anteil der ökologisch bewirtschafteten Gemüseanbaufläche liegt in Sachsen, Bayern und Baden-Württemberg über dem Bundesdurchschnitt. Der geschützte Gemüseanbau in Gewächshäusern oder unter hohen begehbaren Schutzabdeckungen umfasst ca. 1.200 ha Anbaufläche. Dies entsprach 2015 einem Anteil von etwa 1,0 % an der Gesamtgemüsefläche. In 2015 wurden in gut 1.650 Betrieben vor allem Salate (450 ha), Tomaten (330 ha) und Salatgurken (200 ha) angebaut. Die größten Gewächshausflächen finden sich in Baden-Württemberg, Bayern und Nordrhein-Westfalen. Für die Jahre 2012 bis 2014 wurde eine Warenstromanalyse für Frischgemüse erstellt. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die - vor allem witterungsbedingt - kleine Erntemenge des Jahres 2013 teilweise durch Importe ausgeglichen wurde. Trotz ansteigender Erntemengen in 2014 blieb die Importmenge auf dem hohen Niveau von 2013. Parallel zum Rückgang der Erzeugung in 2013 wurde die Direktvermarktung im Vergleich zu 2012 deutlich erhöht. Auch die direkt abgesetzte Menge blieb in 2014 im Vergleich zu 2013 stabil. Auf Verbraucherebene schwankt die relative Bedeutung der verschiedenen Einkaufsstätten, gemessen in Marktanteilen, von Jahr zu Jahr. Verschiebungen in der verfügbaren Menge an Frischgemüse können diese Effekte jedoch überlagern. Insgesamt ist Deutschland beim Gemüse ein Nettoimporteur. Importen von ca. 6,5 Mio. t im Jahr 2013 standen Exporte von etwa 1,3 Mio. t gegenüber. Etwa 65 % des in Deutschland verzehrten Gemüses stammt aus dem Ausland, davon über 90 % aus den europäischen Nachbarländern. Diese Anteile sind seit dem Jahr 2000 praktisch gleich geblieben und variieren nur leicht, z. B. aufgrund von witterungsbedingten Ernteschwankungen. Tomaten, Gurken und Paprika führen die Handelsstatistiken an, aber auch Zwiebeln und Möhren werden in großen Mengen (in 2013 rund 250.000 t) eingeführt. Für fast alle Gemüsearten stammt mehr als die Hälfte der Importe aus Spanien und den Niederlanden. Weitere wichtige Lieferländer sind Frankreich für Blumenkohl und Brokkoli sowie Italien für Kopfkohl, Kohlrabi, Blumenkohl, Brokkoli sowie Karotten und Speisemöhren. Spargel wird in relativ geringem Umfang importiert, dabei ist das Hauptlieferland Griechenland. Bei den Exporten erreichten in 2013 lediglich Kopfkohl sowie verarbeitete Essiggurken eine Menge von über 100.000 t. An dritter Stelle der Exporte stehen Trockenzwiebeln mit rund 80.000 t in 2013./////////////////////////////Summary Vegetable production is the most important horticultural sector in Germany, as measured by production area and gross value added. During 2015, open field vegetable production included 115,500 hectares. The annual per capita consumption of vegetables in Germany has increased significantly over the past decades from only 64 kg in the 1980s to about 96 kg in 2013. National vegetable production supplies about 35-38 % of the total demand. Despite the high importance of vegetable production, data availability is limited to highly aggregated figures or analyses of specific regions or vegetable crops. Therefore, this working paper provides a comprehensive overview of vegetable production in Germany. Systematic analyses of available statistics and an additional coordinated request to the federal states’ statistical offices provided the base for detailed insights into vegetable production and development of farm structures in the industry since the year 2000. The analysis goes beyond the level of the federal states and describes producing structures at district level and for specific vegetable crops as well. German vegetable production is characterized by a diversity of crops. Also, there are large differences between producing regions with respect to crops, farm structures and marketing infrastructure. This working paper describes the different regions. Where possible, determinants of local structures such as soil and climate conditions or other factors are identified and used to explain current trends. Much of German vegetable production area, which can be used for several crops per year (depending on the vegetable), is situated in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland- Palatinate and Lower Saxony. In Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein, there are also several regions of open field vegetable production, which occupy an important role in national vegetable production For decades, structural change in vegetable production has led to fewer and larger operations, but this trend has even increased in recent years. Between 2000 and 2015, the number of operations that grow open field vegetables declined significantly to less than 6,100 operations in 2015. During the same period, the average vegetable acreage per farm increased from 7.3 hectares to 19 hectares. However, there are significant differences in farm structures and developments between the regions and the vegetable crops. Not only farms change their structure, size and specialisation. Also the range of vegetables grown in Germany is subject to change and continuously adapted to match changing consumer preferences or competitive situations. In recent years, asparagus acreage has continued to increase; in 2015, it comprised the largest share of vegetable acreage with 25,700 hectares. Onions and carrots are grown for the fresh and processing market, on 11,100 and 9,600 hectares respectively. Overall cabbage cultivation has fallen and continues to be dominated by white cabbage (5,600 hectares), cauliflower (3,560 hectares) and red cabbage (1,880 hectares). Lettuce and leaves production has expanded in the last ten years by 17 percent and varieties have changed iv Summary significantly. Rocket salad (116 percent) and squash (136 percent) have experienced a boom in recent years and increased the most. In 2015, 9.3 percent of vegetables were grown in certified organic production; about 10,700 hectares. The largest share of this area is used for root and tuber crops (e. g. carrots and onions) with 3,300 hectares. Leaf and stem vegetables followed in second place with a total of almost 2,700 hectares. Various cabbage types were grown on more than 1,500 hectares. Similar to the total vegetable growing area, the areas of organic production are not evenly distributed in Germany. The share of organic vegetable production in Saxony, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg is above national average. There are approximately 1,200 hectares of greenhouse or covered vegetable cultivation in Germany, corresponding to about 1 percent of the total vegetable area. In 2015, more than 1,650 operations used protected cultivation technology, primarily to grow salad greens (450 hectares), tomatoes (330 hectares) and cucumbers (200 hectares). The largest greenhouse producing areas can be found in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia. A commodity flow analysis of fresh vegetable products has been conducted for the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. In 2013, German vegetable production was rather low compared to previous years, mainly due to harsh weather conditions. The analysis shows that this was partially compensated by increased imports. In 2014 national production increased, while imports remained similar to 2013 levels. Simultaneously, in 2013 volumes sold via direct marketing were much higher than compared to 2012. This continued to be the case also in 2014. At the consumer level, the relative importance of different retail outlets, measured in market shares, differed from year to year. Changes in the available quantities of fresh vegetables can however influence these shares. Overall, Germany is a net importer of vegetables. Annual imports far outweigh exports, with about 6.5 million tonnes compared to 1.3 million tonnes. Approximately 65 percent of the vegetables consumed in Germany come from abroad, of which more than 90 percent come from European neighbours. Tomatoes, cucumbers and bell peppers take the lead in the trade statistics. However, onions and carrots are also imported in large quantities (about 250,000 tonnes in 2013). For almost all types of vegetables more than half of the imports come from Spain and the Netherlands. Other important suppliers are France for cauliflower and broccoli, as well as Italy for cabbages, kohlrabi, cauliflower, broccoli and carrots. Asparagus is imported in relatively small scale, while the main supplier country is Greece. In 2013, Germany has only reached more than 100,000 tonnes for exports of cabbages and processed pickles. The third most exported vegetable product is dried onions with approximately 80,000 tonnes in 2013.////////////////////Summary Vegetable production is the most important horticultural sector in Germany, as measured by production area and gross value added. During 2015, open field vegetable production included 115,500 hectares. The annual per capita consumption of vegetables in Germany has increased significantly over the past decades from only 64 kg in the 1980s to about 96 kg in 2013. National vegetable production supplies about 35-38 % of the total demand. Despite the high importance of vegetable production, data availability is limited to highly aggregated figures or analyses of specific regions or vegetable crops. Therefore, this working paper provides a comprehensive overview of vegetable production in Germany. Systematic analyses of available statistics and an additional coordinated request to the federal states’ statistical offices provided the base for detailed insights into vegetable production and development of farm structures in the industry since the year 2000. The analysis goes beyond the level of the federal states and describes producing structures at district level and for specific vegetable crops as well. German vegetable production is characterized by a diversity of crops. Also, there are large differences between producing regions with respect to crops, farm structures and marketing infrastructure. This working paper describes the different regions. Where possible, determinants of local structures such as soil and climate conditions or other factors are identified and used to explain current trends. Much of German vegetable production area, which can be used for several crops per year (depending on the vegetable), is situated in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland- Palatinate and Lower Saxony. In Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein, there are also several regions of open field vegetable production, which occupy an important role in national vegetable production. For decades, structural change in vegetable production has led to fewer and larger operations, but this trend has even increased in recent years. Between 2000 and 2015, the number of operations that grow open field vegetables declined significantly to less than 6,100 operations in 2015. During the same period, the average vegetable acreage per farm increased from 7.3 hectares to 19 hectares. However, there are significant differences in farm structures and developments between the regions and the vegetable crops.Not only farms change their structure, size and specialisation. Also the range of vegetables grown in Germany is subject to change and continuously adapted to match changing consumer preferences or competitive situations. In recent years, asparagus acreage has continued to increase; in 2015, it comprised the largest share of vegetable acreage with 25,700 hectares. Onions and carrots are grown for the fresh and processing market, on 11,100 and 9,600 hectares respectively. Overall cabbage cultivation has fallen and continues to be dominated by white cabbage (5,600 hectares), cauliflower (3,560 hectares) and red cabbage (1,880 hectares). Lettuce and leaves production has expanded in the last ten years by 17 percent and varieties have changed significantly. Rocket salad (116 percent) and squash (136 percent) have experienced a boom in recent years and increased the most. In 2015, 9.3 percent of vegetables were grown in certified organic production; about 10,700 hectares. The largest share of this area is used for root and tuber crops (e. g. carrots and onions) with 3,300 hectares. Leaf and stem vegetables followed in second place with a total of almost 2,700 hectares. Various cabbage types were grown on more than 1,500 hectares. Similar to the total vegetable growing area, the areas of organic production are not evenly distributed in Germany. The share of organic vegetable production in Saxony, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg is above national average. There are approximately 1,200 hectares of greenhouse or covered vegetable cultivation in Germany, corresponding to about 1 percent of the total vegetable area. In 2015, more than 1,650 operations used protected cultivation technology, primarily to grow salad greens (450 hectares), tomatoes (330 hectares) and cucumbers (200 hectares). The largest greenhouse producing areas can be found in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia. A commodity flow analysis of fresh vegetable products has been conducted for the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. In 2013, German vegetable production was rather low compared to previous years, mainly due to harsh weather conditions. The analysis shows that this was partially compensated by increased imports. In 2014 national production increased, while imports remained similar to 2013 levels. Simultaneously, in 2013 volumes sold via direct marketing were much higher than compared to 2012. This continued to be the case also in 2014. At the consumer level, the relative importance of different retail outlets, measured in market shares, differed from year to year. Changes in the available quantities of fresh vegetables can however influence these shares. Overall, Germany is a net importer of vegetables. Annual imports far outweigh exports, with about 6.5 million tonnes compared to 1.3 million tonnes. Approximately 65 percent of the vegetables consumed in Germany come from abroad, of which more than 90 percent come from European neighbours. Tomatoes, cucumbers and bell peppers take the lead in the trade statistics. However, onions and carrots are also imported in large quantities (about 250,000 tonnes in 2013). For almost all types of vegetables more than half of the imports come from Spain and the Netherlands. Other important suppliers are France for cauliflower and broccoli, as well as Italy for cabbages, kohlrabi, cauliflower, broccoli and carrots. Asparagus is imported in relatively small scale, while the main supplier country is Greece. In 2013, Germany has only reached more than 100,000 tonnes for exports of cabbages and processed pickles. The third most exported vegetable product is dried onions with approximately 80,000 tonnes in 2013.


Issue Date:
2016-04
Publication Type:
Working or Discussion Paper
DOI and Other Identifiers:
10.22004/ag.econ.234652
DOI:10.3220/WP1461137491000 urn:urn:nbn:de:gbv:253-201604-dn056602-7 (Other)
Record Identifier:
https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/234652
PURL Identifier:
http://purl.umn.edu/234652
Total Pages:
151
JEL Codes:
Q12; Q13
Series Statement:
Thünen Working Paper
56




 Record created 2017-04-01, last modified 2019-08-26

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