Greater sophistication of buyers in the wheat market has increased demands for higher quality wheats and focused attention on the consistency of the quality of wheat purchased. In this study, the variability of wheat quality characteristics was examined at different stages of the marketing chain. Variability was measured by variety and at farm and export levels. Comparisons were made with Canada where similar data were available. Different measures of variability were utilized where data were available. Inter-year variability, intra-year variability, and within-lot variability of wheat quality characteristics were measured at different points in the wheat marketing chain in the United States and Canada. Variability of many characteristics was similar between Canada and the United States for changes in annual average levels between years and for within year variability. In both Canada and the United States, higher grades exhibited lower variability than lower grades. In addition, the within-year variability of protein and dockage declined from farm level to export levels for the United States. The variability of average levels for grade and protein segregations between sampling periods in Canada was similar at both the farm production and export levels.