Wildlife-related recreation is an important source of economic activity in North Dakota. Using primary, survey-based data, the expenditures and economic impacts of hunters and anglers were summarized for the 1996 hunting/fishing seasons. Total resident and nonresident expenditures (including cost of licenses and additional nonresident expenditures not related to hunting/angling) came to $594 million. Almost $144 million of total expenditures was spent in rural areas by nonresidents and urban residents. Resident and nonresident hunters and anglers generated $1.6 billion in total business activity, $250 million in retail trade sales, $393 million in personal income, and supported over 21,000 jobs. These results suggest that North Dakota's resident and nonresident hunters and anglers are a vital part of the state's economy.