The aim of the paper is to assess the potential use of smart specializations of the region in stimulating the development of agriculture and rural areas of Podkarpacie. The evaluation is based on the experience resulting from the implementation of strategic objectives, related to agriculture and rural areas, adopted in the strategy for the region from the year 2000. The problems and challenges arising from the previously low efficiency of the implementation of these objectives have been shown. Effective implementation of smart specialization conceptions requires that spatial diversity of the region is taken into account at the operational level of the implementation of strategic objectives. In practice, this will involve a selective access to funding, allowing a diverse potential of individual units to be run successfully.