The aim of the study was to identify the factors that determined the regional production of buckwheat in Poland. The data of CSO for the years of 2012-2014, classified according to provinces, served as the source material for the study. Nineteen variables were subjectively selected for a statistical analysis from among many characteristic features of buckwheat production. Four groups of provinces, differing in terms of buckwheat production, were distinguished by cluster analysis. The regional diversity of buckwheat production is determined by environmental, organizational, and economical conditions. Buckwheat cultivation is mainly concentrated in the Lubelskie, and the Dolnośląskie provinces. The northern part of the country has a significant share in buckwheat production in Poland.