The article presents a place of agricultural holdings and enterprises in the food chain. It demonstrates that, despite a decline in both the share of agriculture in: the Gross Domestic Product, employment, and the share of food expenditure in household expenditure, agricultural holdings and enterprises constitute a fundamental and inalienable link in the food chain. Agri-food products determine the positive balance of foreign trade in these products. Furthermore, the article discusses efficiency drivers for the food chain. The most important ones include cooperative ties between the links in the chain.