The commercial bison industry is relatively new to North Dakota. There were an estimated 23,000 head of bison in North Dakota in 1998, and these animals were found in 47 of 53 counties. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic contribution of the bison industry to the North Dakota economy. A survey of North Dakota bison producers and processors was conducted to provide estimates of direct impacts of bison activities within the state. Secondary economic impacts were determined using the North Dakota Input-Output Model. The direct impact of production and processing of bison in North Dakota in 1998 was estimated at $23 million. The $23 million in direct impacts generated an additional $47 million in secondary impacts within the state. The North Dakota bison industry supported a total of 757 secondary full- time equivalent (FTE) jobs within the state. Total economic activity generated within the state was estimated at $70 million, including $27 million in personal income and nearly $18 million in retail sales. In addition, the bison industry generated $4 million in tax revenue (including property, personal income, sales & use, and corporate income taxes). The direct impact of bison production in 1998 ranked fourth in North Dakota's livestock industry; below cattle and calves, dairy products, and hogs, and above turkey and sheep. The average direct impact generated for every bison in the state was $1,000. Total economic activity generated per bison in 1998 was $3,100 (includes direct and secondary impacts from production and processing). For every 30 head of bison an additional secondary FTE job was supported.