The aim of this study was to determine the level of unemployment in rural households in Poland, and the most important factors differentiating them. Analyzed the level of unemployment depending on sociodemographic characteristics of rural residents and regional differences into account. The article presents the dynamics of change in the years 1992-2014. The labor market situation of the population living in rural households since 1992 fluctuated, but since 2008 has remained at a similar level stable. In rural areas, significantly more women are unemployed, young people, with lower secondary education or primary, as well as landless unemployed population, rather than having a farm.