There is a conflict between private landowners' rights and public wildlife rights in Alberta. This conflict is expressed in the reduction or removal of wildlife habitat for agricultural purposes on private lands in Alberta. The landowners' decisions to alter habitat may not reflect society's value on the displaced wildlife. Factors that affect habitat change on private lands within the agricultural regions of Alberta were investigated. Survey respondents chose more often to alter wildlife habitat that was situated on irrigated cultivation than wildlife habitat that was situated on dryland cultivation. Survey respondents chose more often to preserve voluntarily a woodlot than a sligh, without enroling in any preservation program. Survey respondents' age, proportion of land enroled in a preservation program, land use interaction beliefs, net household income, economic outlook, personal value of wildlife, belied in the effectiveness of compensation, risk acceptance, and belief in the economic value of wildlife, belief in the effectiveness of compensation, risk acceptance, and belief in the economic value of wildlife all significantly affect either their decision to alter or preserve wildlife habitat or their choice of wildlife habitat preservation program. The survey results were, in part, analyzed using a random utility model applied through the use of a multi-nomial logit analysis. The above factors were analyzed and incentive compatible mechanisms that are, or may be, used to attain social welfare wildlife goals were investigated. The two msot acceptable land use options for dryland cultivation were lease for wildlife management and contract for joint agriculture-wildlife management. The two most acceptable land use options for irrigated cultivation were contract for joint agriculture-wildlife management and alter wildlife habitat for agricultural purposes. The two least acceptable land use options for private land were sale and donation for wildlife management. The combination of landoner attributes, current and potential land use, and wildlife habitat preservation program attributes will determine the sucecss of preservation efforts. Landowners must believe that they would be no worse off by preserving their land for wildlife habitat. This belief may be affected by the availability of both financial and non-financial incentives to preserve wildlife habitat.