This study examined the interdependency between Chinese agricultural and industrial sectors. A dual economic model was developed to investigate the relationship between the two sectors and factors affecting Chinese economic development. The study reveals traditional inputs, such as labor, are still important to Chinese economic development. Capital investment contributed significantly to the growth of the Chinese industrial sector, but not to the agricultural sector. The results also suggest that foreign trade has made a significant contribution to Chinese economic development. It was found that the growth of the Chinese agricultural sector depends on its industrial growth, but the growth of the Chinese industrial sector does not rely on the agricultural growth.