This study measured the technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of maize production in the central rift valley of Ethiopia using cross sectional data collected from randomly selected 138 sample households. The estimated result showed that the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies were 84.87%, 37.47% and 31.62% respectively. Among factors hypothesized to determine the level of efficiency scores, education was found to determine allocative and economic efficiencies of farmers positively while the frequency of extension contact had a positive relationship with technical efficiency and it was negatively related to both allocative and economic efficiencies. Credit was also found to influence technical and economic efficiencies positively and distance to market affected technical efficiency negatively. The model output also indicated that soil fertility was among significant variables in determining technical efficiency in the study area. The result indicated that there is a room to increase the efficiency of maize producers in the study area.