Much of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is urbanizing rapidly and the economy is growing at a robust pace. The overall demand for food is likely to increase dramatically over the next three decades and the composition of this demand is likely to shift away from staple grains and towards processed and fresh perishable foods, including horticultural products. Horticultural farmers will have increasing incentives to boost yields and minimize crop damage while also minimizing rising labor costs. Responding to these incentives in tropical/sub-tropical climates with high pest pressure will likely involve the substantial use of pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides, all in a lax regulatory environment where farmers may lack training in safe and effective pest control.


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