The cropping system is an approach to help farmer in decision making to remain sustainable in an ever-changing agricultural environment. A two-year study was carried out at Ismailia Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, ARC, Ismailia governorate, Egypt during 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons to study the effect of preceded peanut cultivars on yield and profitability of wheat under two cropping systems in sandy soil. This experiment included six treatments which were the combinations of three peanut cultivars (Giza 4, Giza 5 and Ismailia 1) as preceding cultivars in the summer season and two cropping systems (conventional and intensive). A split plot design replicated thrice was used. The results indicated that peanut cv. Ismailia 1 increased available soil nitrogen (N) content which affected positively number of grains per spike and grain weight per spike and finally the economic yield. Growing fahlberseem in transition period between peanut and wheat enhanced available soil N content that increased grain yield per ha by about 1.00 percent as compared with those of conventional cropping system. Accordingly, intensive cropping system increased wheat grain yield and its attributes as compared with conventional cropping system. Peanut cultivars × cropping systems interaction had a significant effect on available soil N content and all the studied wheat traits except number of spikes/m2. Intensive cropping system increased total and net returns as compared with conventional cropping system. The Egyptian farmers could achieve an increase in their income by $ 2603.2 per ha when using intensive cropping system which included peanut cv. Ismailia 1


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