The global demand for crop biomass for both food and non-food use has markedly increased during the last decade. This recent trend was driven by population growth, income growth by consumers, industrial demand for non-food raw materials, and demand for energy in the form of crop biofuels. Consequently, relative price levels for plant biomass have intermittedly doubled since 2006. The aim of this study is identify and compare global drivers, trends and projections of this process, looking at biomass production, consumption and related resource use in Sub-Saharan Africa as opposed to the Rest of the World. Model-based quantitative projections of global crop biomass markets are reviewed and compared, and supplemented by own projections.