The aim of the study is to determine the condition of bioeconomy in Poland. Particular attention was paid to the discussion of the objectives and priorities of the national and EU bioeconomy policies and to economic instruments to support the implementation of these policies. The study also covers the analysis of condition of the biomass production sector in Poland, taking into account regional differences. The study was based on the source literature on the subject, programming documents of the European Union and guiding principles for the national bioeconomy development policy in Poland. Statistical data by Eurostat and FAOSTAT were used for the evaluation of the potential of the bioeconomy. The research has confirmed that Poland has many traditional industries, which not only produce the biomass, but also process raw materials of biological origin. Bioeconomy is one of the largest and the most important segments of the Polish economy and an important component of the EU market.