Rubber plantations have been expanding rapidly in Mekong Region including Southern China. OFten this was accompanied by negative effects for ecoystems. Intercropping in rubber plantation is suggested as a means of reducing environmental and economic risks. Based onc ross section data of some 600 rubber farmers in Xishuangbanna, we develop four empirical models to analyze adoption of intercropping at farm and at plot level. Results suggest intercropping is an important source of income for the household in the lower income category. However, only a small proportion of rubber farmers have adopted intercropping, with tea being the most frequently adopted intercrop. Major factors of adoption are ethnicity, altitude and household wealth. At plot level the nature of land and the age of rubber trees are major factors. The findings provide important information for agricultural extension services who want to promote complementary income sources in the context of recently falling rubber prices.