Lack of availability of quality rice seeds is a dent for achieving higher yield in both India and Bangladesh. Since both the countries are characterized by similar agro-climatic conditions, it could be economically rewarding if the two cooperate and trade varieties suitable for the local conditions. However, both the countries suffer from technical and resource constraints in production and distribution of adequate quantity of seeds. The problem is further aggravated by lack of cooperation and trade in rice seeds between the two countries. Varying national laws and regulation and lack of official recognition to HYV seeds available are two most important reasons. It is expected that harmonization of seed certification processes, laws and regulation in Bangladesh and India could make good quality seeds available and accessible to a larger number of farmers. This in turn, could help raising rice yields, and improve food security scenario in both the countries.