In Indonesia, the vulnerability of coastal erosion is driving coastal villages to initiate community-driven efforts to rehabilitate mangrove forests that protect against erosion. Analyzing data from a survey of 75 coastal villages, this study identifies factors that are encouraging or constraining communities to initiate their own mangrove-planting programs. Results show that communities with higher levels of shrimp HYV adoption were more likely to plant mangroves, which implies that some technologies can increase the value of ecosystem services that mangroves provide. In addition, villages with aquaculture farmer cooperatives were 35% more likely to replant mangroves, and villages with the ability to impose sanctions were 36% more likely to plant mangroves. The capacity of local governing bodies to coordinate efforts through farmer cooperatives and enforce compliance with a credible threat of sanctions is critical in carrying out mangrove-planting programs at the village level.