After six years of secret negotiations the agreed text of the trade agreement between the European Union and Canada was released in September 2014. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) must still be ratified by the respective legislatures. Agricultural trade was expected to be a contentious issue in the negotiations with both Canada and the EU having sensitive areas where liberalization would be difficult. In Canada, the domestic policy for dairy and poultry -supply management- requires support from high trade barriers. In the EU, some SPS barriers are non-negotiable- GMOs and the use of growth hormones in beef production. The eventual bargain leaves these trade inhibiting measures largely intact. Some liberalization was achieved in other areas such as recognition of EU geographical indications in Canada, reduced barriers to sales of EU wine, increased market access for EU cheeses and expansion in EU TRQs for wheat, hormone free beef and pork.


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