This paper estimates the on-farm impacts of adopting combination of improved agronomic practices (IAPs) on net crop income and agrochemicals use in Malawi using nationwide household survey data. A multinomial endogenous switching regression model in a counterfactual manner applied to control for selection bias stemming from both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. Results reveal that IAPs increases net crop income and reduce pesticides use (except when improved maize varieties adopted alone) and fertilizer use for non-subsidy program participants (except when improved maize varieties adopted alone). However, when improved maize varieties are combined with other IAPs, the demand for agrochemicals either reduced or kept constant. We estimate greater net crop income and larger reduction in pesticides and N fertilizer use from simultaneous adoption of IAPs, suggesting that there are complementary benefits from these practices.


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