This article aims to analyse the conditions for export activities in the Brazilian sugarcane industry. Seven determinants were selected: location, tangible resources, intangible resources, managerial choices, learning, external agents and external context. The research strategy used was the survey. The non-probability sample included 84 valid questionnaires that were collected between November and December 2011. Measures and descriptive statistical techniques were used for data analysis. It was evident that elements related to the seven selected determinants may influence the export activity in the sugarcane industry. Regarding the location, it is noticeable to highlight factors such as the natural environment, costs and access to inputs, labor, transportation and support institutions. Agricultural, industrial, financial and organizational resources, leadership style, organizational culture, reputation, reliance on external agents, social networks and knowledge of the industry were the main tangible and intangible resources. In managerial choices, the proactive attitude of intention to export is the main factor. The analysis of learning determinant reiterated that the researched industry is qualified to operate in the foreign market. The action of external agents, such as buyers and competitors is also important for export operations. From the external context perspective, exchange rate, government policies and the environmental uncertainty were determining factors.