The article investigates agri-food export competitiveness of 23 countries on global markets using revealed comparative advantage (B) index in the 2000-2011 periods. Results indicate that main global agri-food exporting countries have revealed comparative advantages. The panel unit root tests suggest convergence in the dynamics of the B indices. Mobility indices indicate relatively low mobility in the B indices at the product level. The Kaplan-Meier survival rates of the B indices on long-term are among the highest for the Netherlands, France, Belgium, the United States, Argentina and New Zealand. The level of economic development, the share of agricultural employment, subsidies to agriculture, and differentiated consumer agri-food products increases the likelihood of failure in comparative advantage, while agricultural land abundance and export diversification reduces.