Since the reform and opening-up, there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978-2013. From the sequential characteristics, China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution, China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of “going down the south” and “marching the west”. In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors, this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition, non-agricultural employment, market demand, knowledge spillover, comparative effectiveness, rural road and government policies.