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The objectives of the study were (1) to examine the livestock work pattern as farm size changes, (2) to examine the relationships among human labor, livestock work, and machinery use as family size changes, and (3) to provide empirical estimates of the impact of livestock work-milk output, measuring its opportunity cost in lost milk production. First, since most animal power is used for transportation of inputs and outputs rather than direct farm production work, machinery may not replace animal power very rapidly. Second, although the machine-to-animal power ratio increased gradually with farm size, other power inputs ratios including machine-to-human labor did not.


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