In 2012, China’s total grain yield reached 590 million tons and realized nine consecutive years of growth. This is huge historic achievement of China and also rare in development history of world agriculture. However, at the same time of making great achievements, China’s agriculture is still confronted with many problems. On the basis of extensive survey, it pointed out 10 outstanding problems: farmland, labor, livestock power, water conservancy, input, agricultural disaster, ecological and environmental problem, waste of resources, economic scale and economic benefits. These problems have brought great adverse influence on China’s agricultural development. In view of these problems, to realize sustainable, stable and healthy development of agriculture in the new period, it came up with following recommendations: (i) deepening the understanding; (ii) enforcing laws strictly; (iii) enhancing training; (iv) increasing benefits; (v) saving resources; (vi) protecting environment; (vii) developing science and technology; (viii) consolidating foundation.