This introduction summarizes some of the key research findings from the articles included in this special issue of The Review in Agriculture and Environment Studies. These articles were drawn from an INRA-funded workshop held in Montpellier in September 2012 entitled Adaptation Practices and Adoption of New Technologies. The workshop focused on current research in agricultural economics and farm management that extends beyond the study of productivity. Specifically, research in this area now also aims to provide a better understanding of farmers’ ability and willingness to respond to new environmental challenges. In particular, these challenges pertain to adaptation to the changing climatic context and recent developments in environmental policies. The selected articles address the issue of farmers’ adaptation to environmental changes in light of their individual preferences. In brief, their findings indicate that taking heterogeneity into account is indeed crucial when analysing or promoting new adaptation strategies.