Child labour interferes with proper schooling and negatively affects the pace of economic growth by preventing full realization of positive externalities associated with human capital formation. The study examined the determinants of child labour and schooling in rural northeastern Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 969 children. Information was collected on child, parent/household and community characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and Multinomial Logit regression. Most (59.8%) of the children were Combining School with Work (CSW); boys (59.6%) were more involved in this activity than girls (45.6%). Girls (26.9%) were more involved in schooling only (SCH) than boys (17.8%). The regression results showed that a unit increase in the age of children reduced the probability of SCH (0.03) relative to Neither School Nor Work (NSNW) while it increased the probability of CSW and Working (WRK) (0.03 and 0.02)respectively. Being a boy increased the probability of CSW (0.13) and reduced that of SCH (0.09) relative to being in NSNW. Also, being a child of a non-poor household increases the probability of SCH (0.09) and reduces that of WRK (0.06) relative to NSNW. The determinants of child labour and schooling in northeastern Nigeria are age, sex, poverty status of households among others. In essence, it is recommended that households should be encouraged to allow all children aged 5-14 years to participate in schooling in order to acquire the required 9 years of basic education as specified by the International Labour Organization.