The paper analyzes the main changes and trends in Romanian agriculture: land use, areas under cultivation, livestock, agricultural output, yields, trade and policy instruments. The research is a documentary study; data have been gathered from national and European databases and refer to the period 2007-2012. The main results show that agriculture has high shares in GDP and employment, compared to other European Union countries, 5.9% respectively 28.6%. Agriculture in Romania has a dual character: numerous small farms holding one third of the land and very large farms holding half of the land, which lead to low productivity and small yields. Agriculture is oriented to cereals, since large areas are cultivated with these crops (64% of arable land). Lack of capital needed for developing agricultural services, weather conditions, small dimension of farms are the main factors that pull down the average production per hectare for most of the crops. Romania has a positive balance sheet for cereals and live animals and negative for the rest of agricultural and food products. Romania benefited of 2379.8 million Euros from European funds in 2012, which account of 4% of EU countries.