After the BSE crisis, the beef industry has reacted to give a new impetus to the red meat consumption. Nevertheless, in the future, the beef consumption will depend on the competition with the other kinds of meats. This article compares the respective advantages of the French beef, pork and poultry industries according to three major factors : – Price competitiveness. In particular, authors simulate the effects of Agenda 2000 proposals on the retail prices of the different meats. – Ability to meet new consumers requirements relating to safety, naturality, product differentiation. – Potential growth facing the contraints of environmental protection. Beef would benefit from the recent actions of the industry and from the price fall which could be obtained following Agenda 2000 implementation. Meanwhile poultry would get large advantages from its many assets (branded goods, differentiation, price competitiveness), when porc would be at disadvantage.