The assessment of productivity as a measure of efficiency changes over time in a selected food processing industry was the goal of the paper. Estimation of the produtivity was carried out using the Malmquist TFPC index (total factor productivity index), which is based on a deterministic approach. The DEA-based approach allows decomposing of the TFPC indices into: technical change (ΔT), technical efficiency change (ΔTE) and scale efficiency change (ΔSE). A panel data from the companies of a key food processing sector, namely the meat processing, was used. The sample consisted of above 200 objects. The results indicated which of the decomposed indices (ΔT, ΔTE, ΔSE) had the greatest impact on productivity changes in the analyzed sector.