The aim of this study is to investigate the demographic processes as a determinant of economic activity of rural areas. Study involved the changes in the social structure of rural areas in the years 2003 and 2012, and forecasts the probable shape in 2035. The analysis focuses on population projections at regional level, providing information on the likely future size and structure of the population of rural areas in Poland. Statistical indices, which determine the level of disparities on the areas under research, were used in this analysis. The empirical data refers to NUTS 2.