The aim of paper is indication the dynamics and trends in changes of yield potential main cultivated crops in Poland compared to Germany and the European Union in the years 1961-2012. The source materials for the paper were the international official statistics data from the FAOSTAT database. Wheat yields in Poland in 2012 were lower than in the EU-27 and Germany accordingly by 23 and 44%, rye 22 and 54%, rape 16 and 30% and sugar beet 16 and 17%. Yields of maize throughout the analyzed period were similar to the EU-27 average. In contrast, constantly deepen the unfavorable difference in the yields of this species between Polish and Germany. Indicated trends show that agricultural farms in Poland do not fully utilize the progress of biological, technical and organizational. Resulting in much slower than it is in the EU-27 and Germany increased yields of main cultivated crops.