The aim of the study was to estimate in the regional surplus of oilseed crops straw, which can be used for energy purposes. For spatial analysis, data from the Central Statistical Office for the counties from the State Agricultural Census of 2010. The regional differences in the production of rape seed were characterised against the background of natural and organizational conditions. The factors limiting the size of rapeseed production are: the quality of soil (about 33% of the poor soils), freezes risk especially in the north-eastern parts of the country and a large share of small farms in south-eastern Poland. The technical potential of straw from oilseed crops available for energy purposes was approximately 285 thousand tons. The estimated technical potential is highly diversified regionally, due to zoning of rapeseed production. The size of the estimated biomass potential in the districts allows decision on its use at the local level, and thus affects reduction of additional costs such as transport. Bearing in mind the primary objective to secure the food needs, use of residues from products is of great importance.