Coastal communities are especially vulnerable to the impacts of a range of natural disasters. The reported frequency of natural disasters has risen dramatically in the past 100 years, with coastal zones particularly exposed to tsunamis, cyclones, and flooding. Managing the change in coastal dynamics and securing the livelihoods of those affected as responses to these disasters, are important issues for governments and international agencies worldwide. This paper discusses the important role that agriculture can play in the transition from immediate emergency aid to long-term recovery following natural disasters. The focus of this discussion is on the recovery following the 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. Collaborative work such as monitoring agricultural soils and establishing experimental and extension activities to restore agriculture to tsunami-affected sites and supporting the long-term recovery of farming communities undertaken in Aceh from 2005 to 2009 is discussed. Recommendations for future agricultural recovery programs are outlined. The importance of agriculture to livelihoods in Aceh is mirrored in other populous nations of the world, many of whom farm extensively along coastal areas. Agriculture should be regarded as an integral part of any post-disaster recovery program.