This paper aims at quantifying household-level use of medicinal plants and to investigate the determinants associated with the choice of traditional treatment in the central plateau of Burkina Faso. Comprehensive analysis of treatment choice was done through a bivariate analysis aiming at characterising users of medicinal plants. Preliminary results indicate that the use of medicinal plants depends on the nature of the encountered illness rather than on the economic disposition of households. Education and age also plays a significant role in the treatment seeking behaviour. Moreover, medicinal plants are more relied upon in the absence of modern health facilities.